For more detailed policy papers developed by the C20 Working Groups: www.c20turkey.org
The G20 Heads of State Summit is being held in Antalya, Turkey on 15 – 16 November. This wealthy and powerful bloc of countries represents two-thirds of the world’s population, 85 percent of the global GDP and over 75 percent of global trade.
However, wealth does not guarantee an automatic reduction in discriminatory outcomes for economically excluded sections of society, especially women, young people and other marginalised groups. Unless benefits of economic growth reach everyone, particularly the most disadvantaged, the global economic, social and political predicament is likely to deteriorate.
Civil 20 (C20), one of the six formal G20 engagement groups, seeks to communicate policy propositions to G20 leaders in order to promote sustainable and inclusive development.
This media brief gives an overview of some of the critical issues facing today’s world that are up for discussion in Turkey – inclusive growth, tax justice, climate change, gender equality, migration crisis and anti-corruption. The recommendations presented here draw on contributions from over 5,000 individuals and close to 600 civil society organizations from 91 countries worldwide.
76 percent of global fossil fuel emissions come from G20 countries; and more than 1.4bn people do not have access to electricity. In 2010, out of the US$409bn spent on fossil-fuel subsidies, only US$35bn, or 8 percent of the total, reached the poorest 20 percent.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to agree on a fair and equitable long term emission reduction and decarbonisation goal; take immediate action to completely and equitably phase out fossil fuel subsidies by 2020 and significantly increase public climate finance; plus make energy efficiency and renewable energy an infrastructure investment priority.
The bottom half of the world’s population owns the same amount of wealth as the richest 85 people in the world; and seven out of ten people live in countries where economic inequality has increased in the last 30 years.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to systematically track the income growth rates of the poorest 40 percent against the richest 10 percent and modify growth strategies, by facilitating access to social protection and public services including quality education; guaranteeing a living wage; and strengthening civil society participation in policy-making processes.
Following the financial crisis and a spate of high profile corporate tax dodging scandals, the G20 mandated the OECD to come up with a package of measures to tackle aggressive tax avoidance by multinational companies. In response, the OECD set up the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) process in 2013 to redefine international tax rules in order to curb profit shifting activity. G20 Finance Ministers endorsed the OECD tax package and the reforms will be formally adopted by the G20 Heads of State in Turkey. The BEPS tax package is a step forward, however, the measures contained within it simply patch up the existing rules, making them more complex and, in many cases, contradictory.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to support a second round of deeper global tax reforms that involve all countries on an equal footing in negotiating new rules, to ensure that multinational companies pay tax where they do business.
Women earn approximately 77 percent of what men earn; and pay equity between women and men will not be achieved before 2086 if it stays at the current rate. If women’s paid employment rates were the same as men’s, the USA’s GDP would increase by 9 percent, the Eurozone’s by 13 percent, and Japan’s by 16 percent.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to recognize and reduce women’s unpaid work through paid family care leave and paid care work; create gender-responsıve policies, such as, penalizing gender based discrimination at work and introducing gender quotas for employment; and set up national mechanisms to monitor its gender commitments.
There are nearly 60 million displaced people around the globe as conflicts continue to rage in all regions. More people have been forced to flee their homes than at any time since World War II and the number is rising.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to work towards the recognition of refugees’ right to work, and enact measures to make this right a reality, including working with others on job creation and skills development programs to benefit refugees and host communities alike; agree to resettle a fair proportion of Syrian refugees; and increase funding available to meet refugees’ immediate needs.
Corruption undermines economic growth as about 5 percent of global GDP is lost to corruption each year. The OECD estimates that between 20 and 25 percent of public procurement budgets are siphoned away from the services and infrastructure they were meant to provide. The G20 will adopt high level principles on integrity in public procurement when they meet in Turkey.
The C20 calls upon G20 leaders to publish national action plans on implementing the G20 Beneficial Ownership Transparency Principles; adopt concrete measures to increase transparency in public procurement; and improve the quality, quantity and timeliness of government-released data to be accessible and usable by all.
C20 Turkey is facilitated by a committee of 14 civil society organizations working at national and international levels to promote sustainable development and tackle inequalities.
The C20 Turkey Steering Committee comprises the following organizations: TÜSEV (Third Sector Foundation of Turkey), Habitat, Transparency International Turkey, WWF Turkey, IKV (Economic Development Foundation), KEDV (The Foundation for the Support of Women’s Work), TEGV (Education Volunteers Foundation of Turkey), TOG (Community Volunteers Foundation), Turkish Confederation of People Living with Disabilities, Women Entrepreneurs Association of Turkey (KAGİDER), Oxfam, Turkey Europe Foundation. Additionally, The Foundation for the Protection of Natural Habitats and Combating Soil Erosion (TEMA) and The Mother Child Education Foundation (AÇEV) are observer members.
The C20 Turkey Steering Committee is chaired by Zeynep Bodur Okyay, Vice President of the Board of Directors of IKV. The C20 Steering Committee is supported by a secretariat, while an International Advisory Committee provides strategic guidance.